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# Air Foil Lab Essay

4652 words - 19 pages

Abstract:
In this experiment, the use of a scale model airfoil section of an aircraft wing will be analyzed in a wind tunnel. The basic physical laws of engineering and science shall be applied to verify and to understand the principles of flight. A dimensional analysis will be applied to the model airfoil to represent a full-scale wing prototype. The basics of aerodynamics, as applied to standard NACA airfoil configurations, shall be applied to establish performance data regarding lift, drag and stall with respect to the various angles attack demonstrated throughout the experiment at a number of air speeds.
It should be noted that the Cessna 152 trainer aircraft uses a NACA 2412 airfoil, ...view middle of the document...

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LIST OF FIGURES

1. Figure 1: Airfoil nomenclature………………….............................................................5
2. Figure 2: Wind Tunnel ……………….………………..…………………….…....…….6
3. Figure 3: Drag, lift and angle of attack ………………………….………….…....……..6
4. Figure 4: Upper and lower pressure coefficient using chord position.............................10
5. Figure 5: Graph showing lift force from different AOA…………………………….....11

LIST OF TABLES

1. Table 1: Distance of pressure sensing port and X/C ratio………………….…………13
2. Table 2: Surface area of upper and lower ports………..……………………………...13
3. Table 3: Upper Lift force at 789 RPM…………………………………………….......14
4. Table 4: Lower lift force at 789 RPM…………...……………………….…………....14
5. Table 5: Upper lift force at 1168 RPM………...…….…………………………….….15
6. Table 6: Lower lift force at 1168 RPM …………………………………….…....…....15
7. Table 7: Upper lift force at 1300 RPM……………………………………...………...16
8. Table 8: Lower lift force at 1300 RPM…………………………….......…....…...…...16
9. Table 9: Pressure coefficients of upper pin at 3 wind velocities…………….………..17
10. Table 10: Lower pressure coefficient at 3 wing velocities………………….….……..18
11. Total lift force at different velocity……………………….……….......…....….……..18

Introduction:
In aerodynamics, researchers have tried to find the most efficient way to produce the highest lift in an aircraft while reducing the drag generated on the wing. By studying the wing in two parts, (1) the cross sectional area of an airfoil and (2) the modification of the airfoil properties along the finite wing, researchers are able to produce the maximum lift while achieving minimum drag. To test the airfoil wing, a scale model aircraft wing is tested using a wind tunnel that allows air to flow over the wing. Using the various flow velocities produced across a certain area of the wing, the pressure difference over that segment will help us calculate the amount of lift produced by the wing. This lab experiment will help understand the governing phenomena of the lift and drag on an aircraft foil and how these forces are differently affecting the wind velocity and angle of attach of the airfoil. By being able to calculate these forces and perform dimensional analysis, research engineers are able to use small prototypes to better understand how a full size aircraft will perform under these actual wind conditions.

Theory:
An airfoil consists of some dimensional nomenclature such as chord, chord line, mean camber line, camber, thickness, leading edge and trailing edge (Figure 1). The airfoil used for this experiment is a prototype of NACA 4415 which has a chord length of 42 inches (1). Due to the high cost of testing full size airfoils, the experiment uses a miniature scaled model of NACA 4415 with a chord length of 6 inches. This...

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