* 1857 Joseph François Félix Babinski was born. Babinski was a French neurologist who discovered several reflexive signs for diagnosing impairment of the central nervous system. The Babinski reflex of the toes in infants is often used in introductory psychology texts as an example of an innate reflex that disappears with growth of the nervous system.
* A reflex used to determine adequacy of the higher (central) nervous system. Babinski reflex is one of the reflexes that occurs in infants. Reflexes are responses that occur when the body receives a certain stimulus.
* 1859 Charles Darwin published the On the Origin of Species, detailing his view of evolution and expanding on the ...view middle of the document...
* accurate estimates of intelligence can be acquired by systematic tests across multiple aspects of intelligence. By compiling the data from these tests, the abstract concept of human intelligence can be scientifically analyzed. To measure a student’s general ability
* 1905 Mary Whiton Calkins is elected the first woman president of the American Psychological Association.
* It was important to psychology because Calkins paved the way for other women psychologist. Calkins worked hard to strive for equality.
* 1911 Edward Thorndike published first article on animal intelligence leading to the theory of Operant Conditioning.
* Is a method of learning that occurs through rewards and punishments for behavior. For example training a dog to do tricks.
* 1921 The Pennsylvania state legislature changed the name of the Pennsylvania State Lunatic Hospital to Harrisburg State Hospital, its present name. The name change was typical of reforms in terminology of the time.
* Pennsylvania’s first public facility to house the mentally ill and disabled. It was a facility to study human behavior.
* 1927 Percy Tannenbaum was born. Tannenbaum's work with Charles Osgood and George Suci resulted in the development of the semantic differential technique for measuring the connotative meaning of words and of the congruity model of attitude consistency and change.
* Measures people's reactions to stimulus words and concepts in terms of ratings on bipolar scales defined with contrasting adjectives at each end. Ratings are combined in various ways to describe and analyze the person's feelings. This is method is used in all hospitals presently
* 1932 As a 28-year-old graduate student, B. F. Skinner wrote his plan of career goals for ages 30-60: (a) Publish experimental descriptions of behavior, (b) promote behaviorism and operational definitions of psychological constructs, (c) develop a scientific theory of knowledge, and (d) comment on nonscientific theories of knowledge.
* Skinner analyzed human behavior. He created the operant conditioning, the principle of reinforcement, and verbal behavior.
* 1937 In a picture story titled "Rat Works Slot Machine for a Living," Life magazine described the performance of a rat named Pliny the Elder. Using the method of shaping, B. F. Skinner had trained Pliny to pull a chain to release a marble, pick up the marble, and drop it in a box for a food reinforcement.
* Method of shaping proved that a behavior can be predicted and controlled.
* 1943 The American Association for Applied Psychology merged with the APA. The event occurred in New York at a meeting of psychologists planning the role of psychology in World War II. Edwin G. Boring chaired the meeting. Ernest R. Hilgard was chairman of the committee that later wrote the bylaws for the new, reconstituted APA.
* This merge resulted in a new divisional structure. This increased flexibility in projects. Psychologist...