Advance Civil Engineering Essay

4561 words - 19 pages

Task 1 (LO 1: 1.1 and 1.2)
A tunnel is an underground or underwater passageway, dug through the surrounding soil, earth, rock and enclosed except for entrance and exit, commonly at each end. A pipeline is not a tunnel, though some recent tunnels have used immersed tube construction techniques rather than traditional tunnel boring methods.
A tunnel may be for foot or vehicular road traffic, for rail traffic, or for a canal. The central portions of a rapid transit network are usually in tunnel. Some tunnels are aqueducts to supply water for consumption or for hydroelectric stations or are sewers. Utility tunnels are used for routing steam, chilled water, electrical power or telecommunication ...view middle of the document...

Drilling rigs are used to drill blast holes on the proposed tunnel surface to a designated depth for blasting. Explosives and timed detonators are then placed in the blast holes. Once blasting is carried out, waste rocks and soils are transported out of the tunnel before further blasting. Most tunnelling construction in rock involves ground that is somewhere between two extreme conditions of hard rock and soft ground. Hence adequate structural support measures are required when adopting this method for tunnelling.

Drill and Blast Tunnelling Method

Drill and Blast Tunnelling Method

Tunnel Boring Machines Method (TBM)
Tunnel Boring Machine Method
Tunnel Boring Machine Method
Tunnel Boring Machine method is often used for excavating long tunnels. An effective TBM method requires the selection of appropriate equipment for different rock mass and geological conditions. The TBM may be suitable for excavating tunnels which contain competent rocks that can provide adequate geological stability for boring a long section tunnel without structural support. However, extremely hard rock can cause significant wear of the TBM rock cutter and may slow down the progress of the tunnelling works to the point where TBM becomes inefficient and uneconomical and may take longer time than the drill-and-blast tunnelling method.

New Austrian Tunnelling Method (NATM)
New Austrian Tunnelling Method (NATM)

New Austrian Tunnelling Method (NATM)

In NATM method, the excavation location of a proposed tunnel is divided into segments first. The segments are then mined sequentially with supports. Some mining equipment’s such as road-headers and backhoes are commonly used for the tunnel excavation. The ground for excavation must be fully dry for applying the NATM and ground dewatering is also an essential process before the excavation. Another process relates to the ground modifications such as grouting and ground freezing is also common with this method in order to stabilize the soil for tunnelling. This method is relatively slow but is found useful in areas where existing structures such as sewer or subway could not be relocated.

Procedure for Drill and Blast Method
Firstly, we have to survey the shape of the tunnel and then mark the lines to drill with drilling jumbo and to put the explosives.

Surveying the tunnel
Drilling the marked area of the tunnel
Putting the explosives
Surveying the tunnel
Drilling the marked area of the tunnel
Putting the explosives

Then, the detonate the explosives from the safe distance. Ashes and gravels are made due to explosives. So, we need to absorb the ashes with aire ventallator and clear the gravel with dump trucks.
Detonating the explosives
Clearing the gravel with Dump trucks
Dusts and ashes are absorbed by the air ventilator
Detonating the explosives
Clearing the gravel with Dump trucks
Dusts and ashes are absorbed by the air ventilator

Finally, scaling and putting support such as rock bolts...

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