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Adcgaasghhhhhhhhhhhhhhhh Essay

2846 words - 12 pages


Đinh Thị Hà Giang - 09 F1
Cao Thị Minh - 09 F1
Nguyễn Minh Trang - 09 F1
Khoa Ngôn ngữ và Văn hóa Pháp
GV hướng dẫn: ThS. Đặng Kim Hoa

Lời mở đầu
Tiếng Pháp là ngôn ngữ của văn học vì nó rất đẹp nhưng cũng rất khó. Vì vậy mà việc nghiên cứu sâu về tiếng Pháp là rất cần thiết đối với người học. Nó giúp chúng ta hiểu rõ hơn về ngôn ngữ và văn hóa Pháp. Những giới từ chiếm vị trí quan trọng trong ngữ pháp tiếng Pháp trong đó “de” và “à” là những giới từ được sử dụng rộng rãi nhất. Vì vậy cần nắm chắc cách sử ...view middle of the document...

Yếu tố đứng trước có thể là: động từ, tính từ, danh từ, trạng từ,....
Ví dụ: traiter de qqc, le livre de Paul, être libre à faire qqc, contrairement à qqc
... Yếu tố đứng sau có thể là:
- Một danh từ :-C’est un cadeau pour Trang.(Đó là món quà dành cho Trang)
- Một đại từ : -Cette lettre, c’est pour toi ou pour moi ? (Bức thư này là của bạn hay của tôi?)
- Một động từ nguyên thể : -Je suis ravie de vous voir. (Tôi rất vui khi gặp bạn)
Giới từ có thể diễn đạt những mối quan hệ khác nhau:
Ví dụ:
- Quan hệ sở hữu : -Le ballon de la petite fille. (Quả bóng của cô bé)
- Quan hệ sử dụng : -Une tasse à café. (Một chiếc tách để uống cà phê)
- Quan hệ thời gian : -Je ferai les vendanges à la fin de l’été (Tôi sẽ hái nho vào cuối hè)
Chương II: Ý nghĩa và giá trị
Như chúng ta đã biết, giới từ là từ loại không thay đổi dùng để nối giữa các yếu tố bằng mối quan hệ có ý nghĩa nào đó (chẳng hạn như ý nghĩa về nguồn gốc, điểm tới, nguyên nhân, mục đích, cách thức, phương tiện…) . Một giới tù có thể biểu đatj nhiều ý nghĩa trong các câu khác nhau nhưng trong số các giới từ thì “de” và “à” là 2 ví dụ tiêu biểu cho tính chất đa nghĩa ấy. Chúng được sử dụng nhiều nhất, có nhiều giá trị ý nghĩa nhất và cách sử dụng của chúng cũng phức tạp nhất. Chúng ta có thể tính khoảng 15 cho tới 20 nét nghĩa khác nhau. Chẳng hạn, giới từ “de” thể hiện ý nghĩa về xuất xứ, thời gian, nguyên nhân, cách thức, phương thức, tích chất, …; “à” là giới từ chỉ địa điểm (định hướng, đạt điểm, tiến đến, khoảng cách), chỉ thời gian ( cụ thể, chung chung), sự chuyên dụng, sự thêm vào, sự sở hữu…
Cho nên chúng được coi là đa nghĩa. Chính vì lẽ đó, đôi khi có những nét nghĩa chung giống nhau. Ví dụ như:
- Miêu tả mục đích: ví dụ “à vouloir tout faire, il finit par ne rien réussir” (để cho xong chuyện, anh đã kết thúc mà không đạt được gì).
- Miểu tả cách thức thực hiện : ví dụ  “parler d’un ton bas” hay “parler à voix basse”...
- Miêu tả phương thức thực hiện : ví dụ “saluer de main” (vẫy tay chào) hay “pêcher à ligne” (câu bằng cần)
Mặt khác, “de” và “à” cũng có những nét nghĩa đối lập. Chẳng hạn khi miêu tả về không gian, “de” ý chỉ xuất xứ của hành động, ngược lại “à” chỉ đích đến của hành động. Nhưng trong ngữ pháp tiếng Pháp có nhiều ngoại lệ, ví dụ, có cấu trúc “arracher qqch à qqch” (nhổ lật ra) trong đó giới từ đóng vai trò xuất xứ hành động nhưng lại dùng “à”, mà cấu trúc “s’approcher de qq’un/qqch” (tiến lại gần) giới từ « de » đóng vai trò đích đến của hành động.
Một ví dụ khác, giới từ “de” và “à” đưa ra 2 nghĩa khác nhau trong cùng một mối quan hệ nội dung và hình thức.
Ví dụ : “une tasse de café” (cốc có chứa cà phê) – “de” ý chỉ nội dung mà chiếc cốc chứa đựng. “une tasse à café” (cốc chuyên dùng để uống cà phê) – “à” ý chỉ sự chuyên dụng.

Chương III: Cách sử dụng giới từ “de” ,“à” trong tiếng Pháp
Giới từ “de” và “à” dùng để nối 2 thành tố trong câu, vị trí của chúng ở:
- Đứng sau động...

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