Acess To Science: Cells Essay

3954 words - 16 pages

Assignment: Microscopy, Cell Structure
And Functions

Table of Contents

Table of Contents
Task 1: 3
TASK 2: 4
I) Four Main Type of Animal Tissues 4
ii) Plant Tissues: 6
iii) Electron Microscope: 7
iv) Functions of Organelles 9
v) Current Model of the Cell Membrane: 10
Task 3 11
ii) Osmosis Experiment Report 12
Aim 12
Introduction 12
Hypothesis 12
Risk Assessment and Health and Safety: 12
Apparatus and Materials: 13
Procedure: 13
Results: 14
Analysis: 16
Conclusion 16
Evaluation: 16
Sources of Error: 17
Anomalous Results: 17
Biological or Industrial Significance: 17
iii) Process Of Mitosis and ...view middle of the document...


I) Four Main Type of Animal Tissues

Tissues acts as cellular organizational level intermediate between cells and a complete organ, tissues are therefore the aggregation of cells in an organism that have similar structure and function . Multicellular organism function more efficiently if cells become specialised for specific functions.
The four main types of tissues in animals are epithelial, connective, nerve, and muscle tissue.

Epithelial Tissue:

The Epithelial tissue (ET) is cellular membrane that covers free surface, lines organs and cavities. The cells that form the ET has closely packed structure.

• protection (i.e. epidermis)
• absorption (i.e. lining of intestine)
• secretion (i.e. ducts of glands)
• excretion (i.e. epidermis and lining of kidney capillaries)
• Filtration. (i.e. lining of kidney capillaries)

Broadly speaking there are two types of ET simple (one layer) and Stratified (multi-layered).


Simple (one layer)
Endothelium of all blood vessels
Blood capillaries
Pericardium, peritoneum, pleura

B. Stratified (several cell layers)
1. Squamous
a. Keratinized Epidermis
Dorsum of tongue
Vaginal epithelium

Connective tissue:
The Connective tissues (CT) are the most widespread and abundant type of the tissue in animals. Unlike ET the CT is made up of cells and Extracellular (sometimes referred to as non-cellular) matrix. Variations in the composition of the extracellular matrix, determines the properties of the connective tissue. Matrix may be solid (as in bone), soft (as in loose connective tissue), or liquid (as in blood).

The main functions are primarily to:
• support
• anchor
• connect
Although CT exists in a number of forms, all types have three basic structural elements:

Tissue Function Location
Collagenous fibres • Bind bones and other tissues to each other tendon, ligament, skin, cornea,
Elastic fibres • Allow organs like arteries and lungs to recoil extracellular matrix
Reticular fibres • Form a scaffolding for other cells liver, bone marrow,
Muscle Tissue:

Muscle tissue (MT) is composed of bundles of elongated cells capable of contraction and relaxation to produce movement in an organ or part. The cells that form the MT contain protein filaments of actin and myosin that slide past one another, producing a contraction that changes both the length and the shape of the cell. The MT can classified in to three types:
• Skeletal
• Smooth
• Cardiac
Type Function Location
Skeletal • Moves skeleton tissues
• produces heat
• voluntary contraction Attached to bones
Smooth • Maintain blood pressure
• regulates the eye's pupil size
• the rate of contraction (involuntary)
walls of hollow visceral organs, except the heart
Cardiac • Pump blood through heart chambers and into general circulation(involuntary)
Walls of...

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