Lahore , Pakistani Cities And Places
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Location 31°35′00″N, 74°21′00″E
Altitude 218 metres AMSL
Area 1,772 km²
Calling code 042
Time zone PST (UTC+5)
No. of Towns 9
Population 5.143 M (1998)
Estimate 9.0 M (2006)
density 3,660 persons/km²
City Mayor (Nazim) Mian Amer Mehmood
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It is the second largest city in Pakistan, after Karachi. Lahore is the 5th largest city in South Asia and 23rd of the largest cities of the world.
According to legend, Lahore was named after King Lav (son of Hindu god Rama) who is believed to have ruled Lahore in ancient times; the town of Kasur to the south was named after his twin brother Kush. Ptolemy, the celebrated astronomer and geographer, wrote his geography, which was used as a text-book by succeeding ages. He flourished in Alexandria in 139 A.D ; and there is evidence of his having been alive in 161 A.D. In his geography he mentions a city called Labokla, situated on the route between the Indus and Palibothra, or Pataliputra (Patna), in a tract of country called Kasperia (Kashmir), described as extending along the rivers Bidastes (Jhelum), Sandabal or Chandra Bhaga (Chenab), and Adris (Ravi).
The oldest written authentic document, of the pre-Islamic era, about Lahore. Written by an anonymous writer in AD 982 and called Hudud-i-Alam, lies in the British Museum. It was translated by V. Minorsky into English and published in Lahore in 1927.
In this rare book, Lahore is referred to as a small 'shahr' - Town - with "impressive temples, large markets and huge orchards". It points out to "two major markets around which dwellings exist", and it also points out to "the mud walls that enclose these two dwellings to make it one".
Early Muslim Era
Mahmud and Ayaz
There is only a very few references of Lahore until it was captured by Mahmud in 10th century.During 1021, Mahmud appointed the throne to Ayaz, making Lahore the capital of the Ghaznavid Empire. Malik Ayaz, son of Aymáq Abu'n-Najm, was a Turkic slave who rose to the rank of officer and general in the army of Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni (also known as Mahmud Ghaznavi).
His rise to power was a reward for the devotion and love he bore his master. The romance of the Sultan and his slave boy Ayaz is part of Islamic legend. The Sultan is seen as an example of the man who, because of the power of his love, becomes "a slave to his slave." Ayaz became the paragon of the ideal beloved, and a model of purity in Sufi literature. The two ,Ayaz and Mahmud of Ghazni have gained pride of place among the favorite pairs of lovers in Persian literature.
In 1021 the Sultan raised Ayaz to kingship, awarding him the throne of Lahore, which the Sultan had taken after a long siege and a fierce battle in which the city was torched and depopulated. As the first Muslim governor of Lahore, he rebuilt and repopulated the city. He also added many important features, such as a masonry fort which he built in 1037-1040 on the ruins of the previous one, demolished in the fighting, and city gates (as recorded by Munshi Sujan Rae Bhandari, author of the Khulasatut Tawarikh in 1695-96 C.E.). The present Lahore Fort is built in the same location. Under his rulership the city became a cultural and academic center, renowned for poetry. It is said...