1. The first word in a sentence or direct quotation
• The ice-cream man said, “Try a frozen bar. They’re delicious.”
2. The word “I” and people’s names
• Because I was the first caller in the radio contest, I won two backstage passes to the Lincoln Park concert. My friend Mark Segard went with me.
3. Names of specific places, institutions, and languages
• Tim, who lives in Houston and works as a lab technician at Herman Memorial Hospital, grew up on a farm in Woodstock, Ohio.
• The signs in the airport terminal were written in Spanish, English, and French.
4. Product names: Capitalize the brand name of a product, but not the ...view middle of the document...
(An indirect question)
2. The Question Mark (?) Use a question mark after a sentence that asks a question.
• Are you ready for the test?
• How did the car get scratched?
• “Can I have your phone number?” Susanne asked Phil.
Indirect questions tell the reader about questions, rather than asking them directly. They end with periods, not question marks.
• The teacher asked if we were ready for the test.
• I wonder how the car got scratched.
• Susanne asked Phil if she could have his phone number.
3. The Exclamation Point (!) Use an exclamation point after a word or statement that expresses extreme emotion or that gives a strong command.
• I just received a huge raise!
• Cut that out!
Note: Exclamation points lose their power if they are used too frequently. Use them only when you wish to emphasize strong emotion.
4. The Colon (:) The colon directs attention to what follows. It has three main uses:
• Use a colon to introduce a list. On her first day of vacation, Carrie did three things: she watched a funny movie, took a long nap, and ate dinner at her favorite restaurant.
• Use a colon to introduce a long or a formal quotation. The autobiography of Arthur Ashe begins with the following Biblical quotation: “Since we are surrounded by so great a cloud of witnesses, let us lay aside every weight, and the sin which so easily ensnares us, and let us run with endurance the race that is set before us.”
• Use a colon to introduce an explanation. Bert suddenly canceled his evening plans for a simple reason: his car was out of gas.
5. The Semicolon (;) indicates that the reader should pause. It has three main uses:
• Use a semicolon to join two complete thoughts that are closely related, but are not connected by a joining word (such as and, but, or so). Example: Our cat knocked over a can of Coca-Cola; the soda foamed over the white carpet.
• Use a semicolon to join two closely related complete thoughts with a transitional word or word group (such as afterwards, however, instead, therefore, and on the other hand). Example: Wally began school without knowing any English; nevertheless, he will graduate at the top of his class.
6. The Hyphen (-) The hyphen is used within a word or between two words. There are three main uses of hyphens:
• Use a hyphen to divide a word at the end of a line of writing. This rule is for handwritten work. The computer automatically divides words.
Example: The lawyer stood up, put on her jacket, shoved a bundle of papers into her brief-
a) Never divide a word with only one...