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A Comparative Study Of English And Chinese

673 words - 3 pages

中式英语的特点与演变
第60 卷 第4 期武汉大学学报( 人文科学版)  Vol. 60. No. 4  2007 年7 月Wuhan University Journal ( Humanity Sciences) July 2007. 513~516 中式英语的特点与演变
陈 毅 平(武汉大学外国语言文学学院,湖北武汉430072)
[作者简介] 陈毅平(19682),男,湖北汉川人,武汉大学外国语言文学学院副教授,博士, 主要从事修辞学与英汉语对比研究。
[摘 要] 中式英语是一种独特的英语变体,在拼写、语音、语法和语用上都存在有别于通用英语的特点。早期英语中的汉语借词不少来自粤语,现在绝大部分来自普通话,用的是汉语拼音。早期汉语借词不少是音译借词,当代发展趋势是意译借词。早期借用以单词为主,现当代则出现大量的借用短语。
[ 关键词] 中式英语;借词;演变[中图分类号] H13  [ 文献标识码]A  [文章编号] 16712881X(2007) 0420513204

中式英语的出现由来已久,但中式英语的研究仅有70 年左右的历史,国内学者一般认为始于英语语言史专家Serjeantson 的论著《英语中的外来词历史》(1935) 。随着中国国力日益强大,中外交流日趋频繁,大众传媒飞速发展,汉语对英语渗透的步伐不断加快,大量中式英语逐步为英语国家所理解和接受。以英语原版图书为例,20 世纪30 年代Serjeantson 的《英语中的外来词历史》仅收录27 个汉语借词,但时至80 年代,英语正规词典及其他出版物中实际上涵盖了1189 ...view middle of the document...

9 % 。可数名词的复数大多是不规则的或零复数。对借词的形成的分析是一个棘手问题。979 个条目中知道出现时间的只有552 个,其中有些还不够准确。这样就很难说,同一条目存在两种词性的,究竟一个是另一个经过功能变化而来的,还是两者大致同时借入。语料库中的借词大部分是音译词,只有49 个意译词,如barefoot doctor , dragon’s eyes , Gang of Four , Middle Kingdom , paper tiger , running dog , Son of Heaven , winter melon 等。个别词既有音译又有意译,如san2anti —Sanfan ,wallposter —dazibao 。借词的分类 英语中的汉语借词可分为3 类。第一类是保留形式和意义,这些都是经过音译而来的借词。第二类是保留形式而有所添加,如Canton ginger 。第三类是翻译而来的,如drunken shrimp , long march , Warring States 等。该节特别强调本文所谓的借词必须是在归化前直接或间接来自另一种语言,如果只是表达外语中的某种意义,这样的词不能算借词。没有源词(etymon) 的不叫借词,如Red China (Communist China 的同义词语) 和Little Red Book (指Quotations from Chairman Mao Tse2tung) 。根据这种三分法,Cannon 甚至认为silk 一类的词不能称为借词(linguistic borrowing) ,但不妨称之为借意(meaning borrowing) 。文章结尾说,有研究表明,对汉语蜻蜓点水或只字不提的英语史是有遗漏的,需要修正。就对英语新词的贡献而言, 日语和西班牙语是第二大来源,汉语位居第11 。(二) 简 评Cannon 对英语中汉语的借词所作的分析,主要依据8 部英语案头词典,对借词的形式、意义、来源、分类等进行了细致的阐述,其深度和广度至今鲜有出其右者。但该文也有明显的缺点,通篇都是静态的描写,对汉语借词的功能和语用不置一词,这不能不说是一大憾事。另外,文章对汉语借词发展估计不足,说什么汉语对英语新词的贡献不及日语,短期内不能与后者抗衡,这种预言已被事实所粉碎。正如开篇所说,汉语现已成为英语新词最大的来源。三“、英语词汇中汉语借词的来源”评介(一) 基本内容该文由汪榕培和常骏跃合写,2001 年发表。第一作者汪榕培是我国著名词汇学研究专家,出版了《英语词汇学教程》(1997) 和《英语词汇学研究》(2000) 等有影响的词汇学著作。该文开篇对国内外英语中的汉语借词研究作了简要综述,正文从三个方面论述了汉语借词问题:汉语词汇进入英语的历史回顾;汉语词汇进入英语的途径;汉语词汇被英语吸  第4 期陈毅平:中式英语的特点与演变收同化的进程。汉语词汇进入英语的历史回顾 首先谈到最早(888 年) 进入英语的silk 一词,这反映了中国丝绸文化对西方的影响。该词具有很强的构词能力,其衍生词和复合词多达65 个。然后谈到与“中国”和瓷器相关的几个词,包括china , China 和Sino 。其中Sino 是从中国第一个封建王朝“秦”演变而来,首先进入阿拉伯语,后经希腊语、拉丁语、法语而传入英语,是一个比较活跃的构词成分。另外还重点谈到tea 的产生和发展。Morrison 来华传教、鸦片战争及以后的多次社会变革都在英语中得到反映,产生了新的汉语借词。新中国成立以来,进入英语的汉语借词明显增加,到20 世纪末更为显著。不少汉语借词活跃在大众传媒,有些还被英语国家词典收录。“这一时期的借词在语义上更加多样化,拼写逐渐趋向统一,但是一时流行的政治术语偏多,”(汪、常:71) 如Gang of Four , Four Modernizations , reform and opening up to the outside world , One country with two systems 等。汉语词汇进入英语的途径 主要有4 种途径:贸易、传媒、英汉双语地区的存在以及交通通讯。特别是国内外英语报刊、电台、《中国日报》《北京周报》、TIME 、电视台,如、中央电视台英语频道等促进了中式英语的传播与发展。该节末了谈到四种借词现象:狭义的借词(既借形又借义,语音稍有变化) 及三种广义借词—混合借词、转移借词(借义) 、翻译借词。汉语词汇被英语吸收同化的进程 该文提出汉语借词的同化进程可分为四个阶段:渗透阶段、初步同化阶段、相当同化阶段、完全同化阶段。相应地,根据其同化程度的差异,汉语借词可分为四级,一级借词如guanxi 具有明显的外来语形式,而四级借词如china 则与普通英语词汇无异。从英语权威词典收录的情况看,一级借词一般只被一两部词典录入,二级一般被三四部词典录入,三级被五至七部词典收录,四级则见于8 部词典(参见Camon 1988) 。英语词汇中汉语借词的来源”语音、语义、些观点发人深省,如说汉语借词的发展是一个(二) 简 评“ 对英语中汉语的借词所作的分析糅合宏观与微观,历史与现实兼顾,趣味性与科学性兼得,涉及语形、语用各方面,堪称英语中汉语借词研究的一篇力作,体现了作者深厚的词汇学研究功底。有“动态过程”语义、“更重要的是从语言,不光要研究借词的语音、语法特征,学、社会语言学的角度对借用中的问题进行分析和归纳,从而揭示语言借用现象的一般规律”,阐述了借词现象的辩证性,为借词研究提出了更高的目标,指明了新的方向。但是白璧微瑕,如上所述,该文从三方面探讨汉语借词,文章却冠以“英语词汇中汉语借词的来源”之名,似乎名不副实,不够准确。此外,文章谈到地理位置对英语中汉语借词产生的影响时,说“正是由于这个原因,汉语输入英语的借词量远远赶不上其他欧洲语言。”把地理位置摆到如此重要的位置好像有点言重了。四、语 用语言的发展离不开社会与文化的发展,后者往往会在前者中得到反映,留下痕迹。近年来,英语中的汉语借词量显著增长,说明中国在世界舞台发挥着越来越重要的作用。美国《时代周刊》2007 年元月22 日期开始设置固定栏目,专门报道中国事务。此前,该杂志也不定期地刊载中国方面的文章,如2005 年6 月27 日出版的《时代周刊》,第24 —53 页除了广告全都是对中国改革发展的报道,从中可以清楚地看到汉语借词的使用。例如: (1) There has been so much talk , for so many years , about the...

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