1.1 Explain Theories And Philosophical Approaches To How Children Learn And Develop

934 words - 4 pages

Unit 14 Understanding theories and philosophical approaches to child development
1.1 Explain theories and philosophical approaches to how children learn and develop

Erik Erikson
Erikson was greatly influenced by Freud. He believed that we pass through eight psychosocial stages throughout our entire lives and at each stage, our psychological needs will conflict with those of society.
John Bowlby
Bowlby stated that early attachments are crucial to a child’s development and are a key part of the way in which we build relationships later on in our lives.
Jean Piaget
Piaget thought that children think differently to adults, he believed that the way children think and learn is led by their ...view middle of the document...

We will repeat experiences that are enjoyable and avoid those that are not. This applies to learning too. For example, a child who is praised for working well at a particular task will want to work at the task again. Skinner called this positive reinforcement.
Ivan Pavlov
Pavlov put forward the idea of classical conditioning, which he discovered by accident when carrying out research using dogs. The dogs would salivate when one of Pavlov’s assistants entered the room, even if they did not feed them, as the dogs expected it to happen. He then started to ring a bell whenever the dogs were fed; eventually ringing a bell produced the same response. Because this response was learned, it was called a conditioned response. Classical conditioning is often used today to treat phobias and anxiety problems, by helping people form new associations. In the same way, children can be taught to associate positive experiences with learned behaviour.
Urie Bronfenbrenner
Bronfenbrenner developed a theory known as ecological systems theory. This emphasises the importance of different environmental factors on a child’s development, from people in the child’s immediate environment to the influence of national forces such as cultural changes.
Howard Gardner
Gardner introduced the theory that all individuals learn in different ways based on their own aptitudes, and not by a single general ability of intelligence. He stated that different ‘intelligences’ do not all progress at the same time, so children may be at a different stage in their understanding of number to their ability with language, for example. Gardner originally outlined eight intelligences, although he subsequently added two more.


Unit 14 Understanding theories and philosophical approaches to child development
1.2 Analyse how theories and philosophical approaches influence practice
1.3 Explain how to apply theories and...

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