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Jim Floyd:Royal Aeronautical Society Lecture

Jim Floyd:
RAeS Lecture

The Arrow Truth!

This republication has been made possible thanks to the assistance of
The Royal Aeronautical Society and Dr. James C. Floyd. This is quite a lengthy lecture and was presented in December 1958. At that time the Arrow was in phase one flight tests.
We hope you enjoy this piece of aviation history.
Scott McArthur. Webmaster, Arrow Recovery Canada.


The Fourteenth British Commonwealth Lecture

The Canadian Approach to All-Weather
Interceptor Development

by

J. C. FLOYD, A.M.C.T., P.Eng., F.C.A.l., M.I.A.S., F.R.Ac.S.
(Vice-President, Engineering, Avro Aircraft Limited, Canada)

The Fourteenth British Commonwealth Lecture," The Canadian Approach to All-Weather Interceptor Development," by Mr.J. C. FLOYD, A.M.C.T., P.Eng., F.C.A.l., M.I.A.S., F.R.Ac.S. was given in the 9th October 1958 at the Royal Institution, Albemarle Street, London, W.1.
The Chair was taken by Dr. E. S. Moult, C.B.E., Ph.D., B.Sc., F.R.Ae.S., Vice-president of the Society, deputising for the President, Sir Arnold Hall, M.A., F.R.S., F.R.Ae.S., who was ill.
Dr. Moult first read a telegram from the President and then introduced the Lecturer, a distinguished Canadian engineer, for this Fourteenth Commonwealth Lecture. Mr. Floyd joined A. V. Roe and Co. Ltd., at Manchester, as an apprentice in 1929, progressing through the design and production offices to become Chief Projects Engineer in 1944. Immediately after the War he joined A. V. Roe Canada Ltd., at first as Chief Technical Officer, becoming Chief Design Engineer in 1949, Works Manager 1951, and Chief Engineer in 1952. He is now Vice-President, Engineering, Avro Aircraft Ltd. Mr. Floyd became a naturalized Canadian in 1950 and in the same year was the first non-American to receive the Wright Brothers Medal, which was awarded for his contributions to aeronautics, including his design of the Avro Jetliner. More recently, he had been known for his work on the Avro CF-100 interceptor and for the Avro Arrow, which made its first flight in March 1958.

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INTRODUCTION

  In preparing this lecture I was conscious of the fact that there were many phases of the development of a modern fighter which I had not covered, and which would possibly be of greater interest to the specialists on that particular subject than those that I did include. To them I offer my apologies, however, this lecture is not intended to be a handbook or reference on the design of all-weather fighter aircraft, but was prepared more or less as a chronicle of the main events leading up to the current development flying of Canada's newest defence weapon system, the supersonic all-weather CF-105, or Avro Arrow, and its associated equipment and environment (Fig. 1).
   Within the limits of security I have tried to give a broad-brush picture of some of the philosophy behind the establishment of the Weapon System, and deal also in the broad sense with many of the design and development problems encountered in a project of this magnitude. Security precludes the disclosure of actual detailed performance, either specified or achieved on the Arrow up to the present time and also prevents the quotation of some of the results of tests described in the text.


FIG.1

R.C.A.F. REQUIRMENTS

  Canada's chosen role in military air power is one of defence, and Canada does not maintain any bombing or tactical Air Force.   Environmentally, while geographic proximity to the United States obviously influences the choice of systems and armament to ensure reasonable compatibility with the complex U.S.A.F. North American defence system, and the traditional association with the R.A.F. in the United Kingdom again influences the basic establishment and strength of the RCAF, there are unique requirements and conditions in maintaining an adequate air defensive system in Canada which have led the RCAF to establish the requirement for an aircraft particularly suited to these conditions.
  Canada's northern frontier is a vast unpopulated expanse which, from coast to coast, is second in length only to that of
Soviet Russia. Air defence bases are, of necessity, few and far between. Defensive interceptors must be capable of long range operation by day or by night, in any weather. The climate is anything but temperate, varying from near tropical conditions to sub zero temperatures, and fighters must have a very high reliability in this relatively abnormal environment.
   Since Northern Canada is the first line of defence for the North American continent, our aircraft must be equipped with an automatic fire control system which will ensure the maximum probability of kill on the first pass, and the most potent airborne weapons available.
   Canada learned a hard lesson in the Second World War, when she depended upon other sources for her front line aircraft. To quote the Chief of Air Staff at the time of decision to proceed with the " home brew ". In the early days of the fighting, Canadian squadrons operating overseas were low on the list for equipping with the latest types, and on one occasion, even Canadian-built Hurricanes, sorely needed by home-based squadrons to meet a Japanese threat in the Aleutians, were allocated to Russia.
  In a sense. this is quite understandable, since it is like expecting a neighbour in the middle of a fire in his own house, to hand over one of his insufficient number of fire extinguishers so that you may prevent fire spreading to yours. However, it gave Canada a " loneliness complex," the cure for which I believe has turned out very well.
  When, in 1946, the RCAF made the decision to re-equip its front line fighter squadrons with a two-place twin-engined day and night all-weather interceptor with a particularly long range capability, a team of RCAF officers visited aircraft factories in the United Kingdom and the United States to ascertain whether there was an aircraft on the drawing boards which was likely to fill their requirement. Apparently there was not, and they persuaded the Canadian Government to take the momentous step of financing the design and development of a suitable aircraft in Canada. The CF-100 all-weather fighter was the result.
  The outcome of this joint decision must be judged on the basis that, in addition to being the standard Canadian all-weather fighter for many years, the CF-100 is now in service with the RCAF Air Division in N.A.T.O., and was recently chosen in keen competition with other available types to re-equip the Belgian Air Force. The RCAF CF-100 squadrons are also now an integral part of the North American Air Defence System under NORAD.
  In the autumn of 1952, the RCAF decided that because of the increase in the threat, they would have to replace the CF-100 within a specified time by a supersonic all-weather fighter, and an evaluation team was again sent out to the countries in the Western Alliance who might have a suitable interceptor, and it was again decided that none of these countries had a project, either in design or contemplated, which fully met the Canadian requirement.
  Once again, the decision was taken to design, develop, and produce in Canada. This decision was not taken on the basis
that there happened to be an established aircraft industry in Canada, although this obviously had some influence on the decision. However, the Chief of the Air Staff at that time, Air Marshal Slemon, made it quite clear that Canada was not in a position to undertake the development of a new aircraft if a suitable type was being designed, developed, or produced in either the United States or the United Kingdom, and the decision to design and develop in Canada was taken entirely because of the peculiar Canadian defence requirements, the non-availability of a suitable weapon elsewhere, and the ability to meet the Canadian requirements which had already been established by the Canadian aircraft industry.

BRIEF HISTORY OF THE PROJECT

  Preliminary studies on a supersonic aircraft to replace the CF-100 for the Canadian squadrons had been made at Avro during 1952 early 1953. In May 1953 RCAF Specification AIR 7-3 was issued, and this became the basis for further design studies.   In July 1953 a Ministerial directive was issued from the Department of Defence Production authorizing the design study of an aircraft to meet AIR 7-3. Preliminary design on this aircraft, given the project CF-105, was completed by the summer of 1954.
  The initial aircraft had two Rolls-Royce RB-106 engines with afterburners, a two-man integrated fire control system, and the armament was a mixture air-to-air missiles and 2.75 in. air-to-air rockets.
  By the end of 1953 preliminary loads and sizes had been established for the complete aircraft, and certain wind tunnel work had been done to establish the dynamic parameters. The production engineers also establishing manufacturing techniques.
  In early 1954 the RB-106 engine project abandoned by Rolls-Royce, and the choice of engines was therefore again in the mill. Orenda were at that time designing a large supersonic engine as a private venture, and this engine was well matched to our requirements. However, it was obvious that this would not be available for the first few aircraft. TheCurtiss-Wright J.67 engine
appeared to be the most suitable engine for the earlier version, and the first few aircraft were therefore designed around the J.67. However, in 1955 it became obvious that the USAF were going to abandon the development of the J.67, and the Pratt and Whitney J.75 was substituted. The design of the aircraft had been well along on the J.67 version, and an appreciable amount of redesign had to be done to accommodate the J.75.
  Aerodynamically, the CF-105 was, of necessity, a considerable advancement over contemporary aircraft. and there were few reports or tests available on which to base a firm, production type, design. Stability and control problems were probably the most difficult to assess and an extensive wind tunnel programme was instituted.
   However, since the design of the aircraft had to proceed at the same time, the basic aircraft design was frozen on the basis of stability and control characteristics largely predicted from theory. By mid-1954 production drawings were going out to manufacturing.
  I would like to deal briefly with some of the philosophy behind the configuration which we chose to meet the specification

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