ADA:Avro Jetliner C102-North America's First
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AVRO
C102 Jetliner
North America's First
1949-1956
This
republication has been made possible thanks to the assistance
of
The Society of Automotive Engineers and Dr. James C. Floyd. This
is quite a lengthy lecture and was presented in January 1950. We hope
you enjoy this piece of aviation history.
Scott McArthur. Webmaster, Arrow Recovery
Canada
 
 LANDING
GEAR
                 The
absence of propellers and the consequent short distance
between the aircraft structure and the ground coupled
with the fact that an under-slung nacelle configuration
was used, resulted in an extremely short main
landing gear, see figure 21. The actual distance between
the undercarriage main pivot and wheel centres is less
than 30 inches. This has resulted in the establishment
of an extremely robust and simple design, and one which
is believed to be lighter as a percentage of the gross
weight than any existing transport undercarriage.
                 Twin
wheels are used on both the main and nose units, both
retracting forward. The main undercarriage struts consist
of a telescopic leg incorporating liquid springing. The
nose wheel is self-centering, fully castoring and incorporates
shiming damping, see figure 22. The hydraulic steering
unit incorporating a double piston control acts as a
shimming damper when the steering is switched off. Steering
is controlled by a wheel adjacent to the pilot.
                 The
nose wheel is steerable through an are of 70 deg each
side, and the wheel cancaster through 360
deg for towing. Lever suspension is used on the nose
gear.
                Undercarriage
retraction is electro-hydraulic and hydraulic brakes
have been installed, controlled by the rudder pedal toe
brakes. All wheels are to the American Tire and Rim Association
specifications. The main undercarriage doors are operated
by separate hydraulic jacks, and the nose wheel doors
are operated mechanically by a trip mechanism fitted
to the nose undercarriage.
                Accidental
ground retraction is prevented by a microswitch which
comes into operation when more than 5% of the aircraft
weight is on the wheels.
                 All
undercarriage uplocks can be tripped manually in an emergency
and extension will then take place by gravity and drag
forces.
      
    ACCESSORIES
AND SYSTEMS
                 The
position and layout of the various accessory units which
have to be serviced regularly on the ground,
or which need to be accessible in flight was given a
lot of thought, as this is a point, which has aroused
much criticism in the past by airline operators.
                An
accessories compartment was introduced behind the first
officers bulkhead on the starboard side to carry the
main aircraft accessories, see figure 23. The heater,
refrigerating turbine, main electrical accessories such
as, inverters, relays etc., and the main electrical distribution
panel are all housed in this compartment, which has its
own fire extinguishing system.
                All
radio and electronic units are in a similar separate
compartment on the port side behind the pilot's bulkhead,
see figure 24.
                 The
main hydraulic units are panelized, the panels being
housed in the forward wing root fillet, with easy access
at ground height to all ground connections, accumulators,
valves etc. The emergency power pack is also contained
on these panels.
                Methyl-bromide
engine fire protection bottles are housed in the nacelles
at shoulder height and the engine starter relay panels
are also in this vicinity.
                 The
extremely low static position of the aircraft
imures that practically all external servicing is done
without steps or servicing ramps.
          Ground
pressure tests can also be carried out by connecting
up the ground pressurizing equipment to a service panel
inside the nose wheel well.
  HYDRAULIC
SYSTEM
                 The
main hydraulic system is a high pressure system operating
at a normal pressure of 1,800 pounds per sq. inch. The
cut-out pressure is 2,200 p. s. i. and the relief valve
pressure is 2,700 p. s. i.
                 The
normal system power is provided by two constant pressure
variable, displacement pumps on the accessory gearbox
in the nacelles. Either pumps will provide full hydraulic
power for the complete system, and the use of two pumps
is to provide duplication against failure.
                 The
main services operated by the hydraulic system are the
main and nose undercarriage gear, nose wheel steering
unit, landing and dive flaps, main wheel brakes, main
wheel doors, and aileron power booster. Complete duplication
of the normal hydraulic system is provided by a "power
pack" consisting of an electrical motor and a pump.
                 A
hand pump is provided in the accessories compartment
which also can be used in an emergency. On the ground,
the system can be operated by ground supply points located
on the wing root fillet panels.
ELECTRICAL
SYSTEM
                 The
electrical system is basically a single grounded negative
system for both D. C. and A. C. services.
                  There
are in effect six separate systems providing power for
the various services. The various systems are listed
below:
                28.5
volts - From two engine driven D. C. generators for
lighting relay controls, radio and some instrumentation.
The D. C. generator system is over-voltage protected.
               115
volts - Three phase 400 cycles from D. C. motor generators
(inverters), for some flight instruments, engine
instruments and some radio equipment.
                26
volts - Three-phase 400 cycles from a transformer,
connected across  the 115 volt three-phase
power supply for general instrumentation.
                208
volts - Three-phase 400 to 700 cycles from two engine
driven alternators for wing and ampennage de-icing
and galley.
                600
volts - Three-phase 400 to 700 cycles, from
a transformer connected across the 208 volt three-phase
power supply for the 'Nesa" de-icing system.
                Two
89 ampere hour batteries connected in series to supply
24 volts are used for ground testing and generator
stabilization in flight.
 DE-ICING
SYSTEM
                  While
de-icing will not be fitted for the first flights of
the first prototype, an electro-thermal de-icing system
will be used for the wings and empennage. De-icing power
is provided by two 50 KW., 208 volt three-phase 400-700  cycle
alternators situated on the engine driven gearbox.
                 Windscreen
de-icing is provided bv special 'Nesa' glass windscreen
panels, which consist of a vinyl core sandwiched by two
thicknesses of semi-tempered glass. On the outside surface
of the vinyl between the vinyl and the outside layer
of glass is a conductive 'Nesa' coating which provides
approximately 5-6 watts per sq. inch power
input.
                 The
windscreen de-icing is entirely automatic and the temperature
is controlled to provide the quantity of heat required
for anti-icing, and at the same time, keeping the vinyl
layer at a temperature which gives it the best resistance
to bird impact.
                 The
three forward panes of the aircraft are designed in this
manner, and the vinyl centre layer has the additional
advantage, that in the event of a windscreen being shattered
by any circumstances, the vinyl will still withstand
at least twice the maximum differential pressure in the
fuselage by blowing out in the form of a bubble.
                 Engine
and intake de-icing is a special problem which at the
moment is being investigated fully by the engine manufacturers
and Avro Canada. There are several workable schemes.
As it has not yet been decided definitely which system
will be used for production aircraft, it is obviously
not desirable to go into detail on the subject in this
paper.
 RADIO
SYSTEM
                 All
radio equipment is housed in the radio compartment on
the starboard side of the front entrance door, and is
completely enclosed by quick removable panels giving
complete access to all units.
                 The
electronic units are housed on sliding racks and use
is made of special type connector boxes which automatically
engage the pins when the units are pushed into position.
                 The
radio and electronic compartment is ventilated by a separate
blower. The basic radio system consists of the following:
(1)
HF communication transmitter-receiver with provision
for 20 channel equipment.
(2)
VH communication transmitter-receiver.
(3) 18
channels plus guard channels.
(4)
Dual automatic radio compasses with radio magnetic
indicators.
(5)
Isolation amplifier chassis including interphone
amplifier,and a special loud speaker amplifier
for the captain and the first officer.
                  All
the radio and navigation instruments are duplicated on
the captain's and first officer's panels, and all control
panels are located on the flight deck pedestal.
                  The
entire radio pedestal assembly is removable as a unit
by means of disconnecting plugs at floor level.
                  Microphone
and headphone jacks are provided at the side panels,
and separate loud speakers are provided for the captain
and first officer.
                  Communication
with the cabin attendant is by an interphone system.
A sound hand set is connected to an outlet in the wheel
wells and external servicing points.
                 All
receiver audios are muted during interphone speaking
periods with an interlock to prevent muting of either
or both communication audios during communication periods.
Provision
for Additional Facilities
                 Full
provision is made for the following additional radio
navigational equipment.
(1)
Two VHF navigational receivers providing omni-directional
range and localizer, both installations having
separate controls and instruments for simultaneous
operation. (Magnetic headings for each of the ODR
sets derived from separate remote-indicating compass
systems).
(2)
Two glide-path receivers with channel selection
automatically tied in with corresponding localizer
receivers.
(3)
An additional marker-beacon receiver to complete
the duplication of radio navigational equipment.
                Selection
of the visual output of either of the two ILS combinations
can be available to the captain by means of one switch.
The autopilot automatic approach equipment would be paralleled
with the captains ILS indicator.
CONCLUSION
               It
has obviously not been possible in this paper to give
more than a bare outline of the work that is necessary
in the design of a new aircraft.
              An
enormous amount of test work had to be carried out on
the structure, and functioning of equipment, even before
the aircraft first flaw, and rigorous flight testing
is now being carried out to assess control, stability
and general performance.
              There
has been much discussion in the past an the relative
merits of jet and reciprocating engined aircraft, and
most of the criticisms of the jet have been made by people
who have never had the experience of either working on
a jet project or really getting down to the job of comparing
the two types on a rational basis.
              This
stage has, however, passed and the main argument now
is not if the jet transport will be used, but when will
it be used.
             The
successful demonstration of the C-102 Jetliner in flight
has brought that date a little nearer.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
I
wish to express my thanks to A.V. Roe Canada Limited
for their permission to give this paper, and also to
the Rolls-Royce Company for permission to publish the
engine data.
My
appreciation is also due to Mr. R.M.Stuart, my Technical
Assistant, for his assistance in the preparation of the
art work and diagrams.
AUTHORS
NOTE:
A
certain amount of the above material was used in a paper
I gave at the Annual Convention of the Engineering Institute
of Canada at Quebec City in May 1949.
LEADING
DIMENSIONS
Wing
Area.................................................Cr:
1157 sq.ft.
Wing
Span.......................................................   98'11"
Aspect
Ratio ....................................................   8.31
Aerofoil................................................. NACA
230 Series
T/C
Ratio at Root................................................   16.5%
T/C
Ratio at Tip..................................................   12%
Incidence
of Datum Plans .....................................  2
1/2 deg
Dihedral
on Datum Plane......................................... .  6
deg
Fuselage
Length Overall........................................... 82'
9"
Fuselage
Diameter........ .........................................  10'
Undercarriage...................................................
Tricycle
IMAGE
CAPTIONS
FIG.
1 - Frontispiece.
FIG. 2 - Gust Load Factor Vs, Equivalent Air Velocity for Various All-Up
Weights.
FIG. 3 - Specific Fuel Consumption at Various Speeds.
FIG. 4 - Typical Flight Plan for 500 Miles.
FIG. 5 - Effect of Dive Flaps on Rate of Descent and Comparison of Rates
with Power Off and Half Engine Speed.
FIG. 6 - C-102 Payload Vs. Range.
FIG. 7 - Forty and Fifty Passenger Versions.
FIG. 8 - Nacelle Data.
FIG. 9 - Engine Prior to Installation.
FIG. 10 - Engine Installation.
FIG. 11 - Engine Showing Oil Tank and Gearbox Drive.
FIG. 12 - Variation of Static Thrust with Water-Methanol Injection at
14,700 R. P. M.
FIG. 13 - Four Engine Take-Off Distance Vs. Temperature at Various Gross
Weights.
FIG. 14 - Three-Quarter Front View of Nacelle.
FIG. 15 - Three-Quarter Top View Showing Aft Lines of Nacelle.
FIG. 16 - Fuel Consumed During Descent with All Engines at Half Speed.
FIG. 17 - Fuel Tank Access Panel in Front Spar.
FIG. 18 - Empennage Showing Double Surface Controls.
FIG. 19 - Cabin Insulation Installation.
FIG. 20 - Flight Deck.
FIG. 21 - Main Undercarriage.
FIG. 22 - Nose Undercarriage.
FIG. 23 - Accessory Compartment.
FIG. 24 - Radio Racks.
"Copyright
1951 Society of Automotive Engineers, Inc. This paper
is published on this web-site with permission from the
Society of Automotive Engineers, Inc. As a user of this
web-site, you are permitted to view this paper on-line,
download the pdf file and to print a copy at no cost
for your use only. Downloaded pdf files and printouts
of the SAE paper contained on this web-site may not be
copied or distributed to others or for the use of others."
CONVERTED
TO HTML, AND HYPERLINKS ADDED, January 17, 2002.
Scott McArthur.
ONLINE
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