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AVRO
C102 Jetliner
North America's First
1949-1956
This
republication has been made possible thanks to the assistance
of
The Society of Automotive Engineers and Dr. James C. Floyd. This
is quite a lengthy lecture and was presented in January 1950. We hope
you enjoy this piece of aviation history.
Scott McArthur. Webmaster, Arrow Recovery
Canada
 Fuel
Tanks
                  The
scaling of the integral tanks was a problem which had
to be studied very carefully, since the airlines
had been having some trouble with certain types of
integral tanks and a certain amount of prejudice had
been built up against them.
                  After
much investigation and testing, a system of sealing was
derived which has given such excellent results on
test that it appears to be a very great improvement on
the existing methods of sealing.
                  Thiokol-based
sealants are used and combinations of plasticizers and
synthetic resins are added, making
a permanently plastic seal, which has low shrinkage
and good adhesion properties. The top and bottom wing
skins and the spars are sealed before assembly,
and the corners are then sealed after the wing is
removed from the assembly jig.
                  No
sealant is used between the faying surfaces. The finished
tank is sprayed with a cyclohexanone solvent to bond
the complete inner surface. The system lands itself to
local repair as no slushing compounds are used
                  Access
to the wing is by large leading edge access doors and
stress-bearing removable panels in the front spar, see
figure 17.
 FLYING
CONTROLS
                   Double
aerodynamically-unbalanced control surfaces have been
used for both the rudder and elevator controls, see figure
18.
                  The
intermediate or auxiliary surface on the rudders is used
soley to trim out for an engine failure at low speeds.
With the use of jet engines, high rudder angles are not
normally necessary due to the absence of slip stream,
which is the usual cause of swing at take-off. The engines
are also close to the fuselage which again reduces the
rudder power required.
                 The
tail plane is out of the flap wake during landing and,
therefore, the tail efficiency is high which reduces
the elevator angles required for normal trim. The auxiliary
surface is only required for the flare-out, on landing
with an extremely forward C. G. Piano hinges have been
used on all tail surfaces, and this improves the effectiveness
by sealing the gaps.
                 Narrow
chord high aspect ratio surfaces are used, and these
have the advantage that no aerodynamic balance is necessary.
They also have lower drag, less danger of icing, better
repeatability and low weight of mass balance.
                 The
narrow chord elevator is also very much better from the
point of view of susceptability to oscillatory instability.
The usual cures for this are less aerodynamic blance,
and a lower mass moment of inertia. These features are
all incorporated in the double surface control.
                 Power
operation of the tail surfaces on the first prototype
is by a simple switch controlling a small electric motor
and limit switches. The system is entirely separate from
the electric and manual elevator trim.
                An
hydraulic assister is used for aileron power boost in
the ratio of 5 to 1. This is a pure assist system, and
in the event of an hydraulic or unit failure, the booster
is thrown out and full manual control is retained with,
of course, reduced power.
                Push-pull
type controls are used on all three main control systems,
employing light alloy tube to eliminate differential
expansion and contraction under extreme temperature changes.
The tubes are supported in roller guide bearings using
rubber covered ball bearing rollers.
 PRESSURIZING
                 The
air conditioning system is entirely automatic once the
controls have been pre set by the pilot. Either supercharger
is capable of delivering about 60 pounds of air per minute
up to an altitude of 13,500 ft. Automatic control
of the cabin pressure is maintained by the discharge
valve set to provide sea level conditions up to 21,500
ft.
                At
21,500 ft. the differential pressure remains constant,
and at 25,000 ft., the cabin altitude is 2000 ft.
and 4,000 ft. at 30,000 ft. altitude.
                 The
rate of pressure change in the cabin during the climb
and descent is also automatically controlled.
Cabin
Sealing
                  The
fuselage had to be very carefully sealed to provide a
pressure tight cabin and a method of sealing
was used which has been well tried on other aircraft.
                This
consisted of applying special sealing compounds between
the faying surfaces and skin joints. The remaining riveting
such as, riveting stringers and capping strips to the
skin were not sealed, as with the use of dimpled riveting,
the rivets are tight enough to produce a satisfactory
seal. Any leaking rivets are individually sealed by bushing
with a special sealant.
                 Figure
19 shows the cabin insulation installed prior to fitting
the wall panels.
 COCKPIT
LAYOUT
                 Having
in mind the usual confusing array and disposition of
instruments and controls in the average flight deck,
a special attempt was made in the case of the C-102 to
achieve a configuration that was both functionally good,
and at the same time, gave the best servicing layout.
                 The
extent to which this has been achieved can be seen in
figure 20. The main instrument panel is divided into
three sections. The centre panel carries all engine and
fuel instruments. A small fuel system control panel is
attached to the engine panel with the fuel diagram etched
on, and this contains the switches and lights for
the various booster pumps and cross-feed warning lights.
All panels are hinged for easy access.
                 The
engine instrument panel is very much simplified by the
use of jet engines, as the only engine instruments are
the R. P. M. indicators, jet pipe temperature gauges,
burner pressure gauges, and oil pressure warning lights.
                 The
two main instrument panels carry the normal flight instruments,
and have been grouped to conform with the latest requirements
for radio navigation and automatic landing aids.
                 In
the ceiling, between and within easy reach of each pilot,
is the main electrical panel carrying the engine starter
switches, fire protection switches and buttons, and the
main electrical control switches.
                 The
pressurization control panel is on the left of the captain
and the air conditioning, oxygen and de-icing control
panels to the right of the first officer. Circuit breaker
panels for both electrical and radio equipment are mounted
on the aft deck bulkhead.
                  Both
pilots' seats are fully adjustable and slide back for
easy access. Cranked control columns are used to avoid
obstruction to the pilots' knees, and a spectacle type
of aileron hand wheel is used.
                  A
lot of thought was put into the main control pedestal,
which on the upper portion carries the engine throttles,
undercarriage, flap, and automatic pilot controls, the
emergency manual low pressure fuel cock levers, and fuel tank
selectors.
                  The
radio control panels are situated on the lower portion
of the pedestal. The pedestal also carries all the manual
trimmer controls, the manual autopilot disconnect lever,
gust lock and parking brake levers, and the aileron power
boost cut-out.
                  Direct
vision windows which swing inwards are provided for landing
under adverse weather conditions.
                  The
rudder pedals are fully adjustable and are articulated
to provide  two brakes for equal or differential
brake application.
                   The
above cockpit layout was finalized only after many conferences
with airline pilots and technicians and the final mock-up
was carefully checked to get the best possible layout.
"Copyright
1951 Society of Automotive Engineers, Inc. This paper
is published on this web-site with permission from the
Society of Automotive Engineers, Inc. As a user of this
web-site, you are permitted to view this paper on-line,
download the pdf file and to print a copy at no cost
for your use only. Downloaded pdf files and printouts
of the SAE paper contained on this web-site may not be
copied or distributed to others or for the use of others."
CONVERTED
TO HTML, AND HYPERLINKS ADDED, January 17, 2002.
Scott McArthur.
ONLINE
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