ADA:Avro Jetliner C102-North America's First
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AVRO
C102 Jetliner
North America's First
1949-1956
This
republication has been made possible thanks to the assistance
of
The Society of Automotive Engineers and Dr. James C. Floyd. This
is quite a lengthy lecture and was presented in January 1950. We hope
you enjoy this piece of aviation history.
Scott McArthur. Webmaster, Arrow Recovery
Canada
Nacelle
Shape
                 The
external and internal shape of the nacelles was chosen
very carefully with a view to getting the best possible
pressure recovery characteristics externally, and an
efficient plenum intake which would give the best compromise
between the ideal low and high speed conditions, see
figure 8.
                 For
take-off conditions where there is very little ram effect,
there is a suction in
the plenum chamber, and in order to prevent breakaway
around the intake walls, the wall angle was kept down
to less than 10 deg. To achieve this, it was necessary
to go to separate, intakes foreach engine, as with a
common elliptical intake, the diffusion angle would have
been excessive in a short nacelle, and any increase in
nacelle length was disadvantageous, due to the destabilizing
effects of a long wide nacelle.
                 The
best intake curves were established in conjunction with
the engine manufacturers recommendations. For the outside
shape, the lines between the inside lip of the intake
radius and a point about 20% of the total nacelle length
aft of the intakes were most critical both for drag rise
and intake effeciency, see figure 14. Figure 15 shows
how little the nacelles interfere with the top surface
of the wing.
 ENGINE
DATA
                A
civil version of the standard Rolls-Royce Derwent 5 engine
is used, and a brief summary of the performance is shown
below.
 
  Engine
Speed
Time
Limit
Take-Off
and Climb
14,700
15
mins.
Maximum
continuous power
14,100
Unrestricted
Idling
on ground
Approx:
3,500
RPM
                Relighting
in the air is possible and numerous relights have been
carried out during flight tests.
                As
the economy of the C-102 has been worked out assuming
that all engines are operating, however, relighting would
not normally be employed. It can be seen by reference
to figure 16, that each engine consumes less than 90
lb. of fuel in descent from 30,000 ft. at half max. cruise
r. p. m. If the operator felt, however, that any stacking
should be carried out at fairly low altitude, two engines
could be closed down to conserve fuel.
FUEL
SYSTEM
                Fuel
is housed in four integral wing tanks located in the
inboard portion of the outer wings, between the main
spars. The total capacity of the tanks on the first prototype
is 2,400 Imp. gals. The tank capacity can, however, be
considerably increased. Immersed booster pumps are used.
                 The
pilot can fully control the disposition of his fuel load,
and a cross balance pipe is provided so that fuel from
any tank is available to all engines in an emergency.
                 In
the event of failure of the booster pumps, the engines
are capable of sufficient suction to enable them to operate
with the booster pump inoperative.
                 Manually
controlled shut-off cocks to each engine are provided
as a safety measure to shut off the fuel in the event
of an emergency.
                 A
signal light system is provided on the, fuel system panel
to enable the pilot to check instantaneously the condition
of the fuel system.
                 Both
overwing and underwing refueling is installed and the
tanks can be refilled at the rate of 200 Imp. gals. per
min. through each underwing refueling valve at a nozzle
orifice pressure of approximately 5 p. s. i. A refueling
manifold is used for each pair of tanks and a special
built-in selector valve permits fueling or defueling
of each tank individually.
                 A
special float valve coupled with the underwing refueling
system prevents the tank being damaged, by shutting off
the fueling valve when the fuel reached a predetermined
level in the tank.
"Copyright
1951 Society of Automotive Engineers, Inc. This paper
is published on this web-site with permission from the
Society of Automotive Engineers, Inc. As a user of this
web-site, you are permitted to view this paper on-line,
download the pdf file and to print a copy at no cost
for your use only. Downloaded pdf files and printouts
of the SAE paper contained on this web-site may not be
copied or distributed to others or for the use of others."
CONVERTED
TO HTML, AND HYPERLINKS ADDED, January 17, 2002.
Scott McArthur.
ONLINE
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