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wondered about the "firsts'" the Arrow was
designed with, here are a few. These are all discussed
in Randall Whitcombs book "Avro
Aircraft and Coldwar Aviation." Remember
the year was 1958
CF-105 Avro Arrow was:
a/c designed with digital computers being used for
both aerodynamic analysis and designing the structural
matrix (and a whole lot more).
a/c design to have major components machined by CNC
(computer numeric control); i.e., from electronic
data which controlled the machine.
a/c to be developed using an early form of "computational
fluid dynamics" with an integrated "lifting
body" type of theory rather than the typical
(and obsolete) "blade element" theory.
a/c to have marginal stability designed into the
pitch axis for better maneuverability, speed and
a/c to have negative stability designed into the
yaw axis to save weight and cut drag, also boosting
a/c to fly on an electronic signal from the stick
and pedals. i.e., first fly-by-wire a/c.
a/c to fly with fly by wire AND artificial feedback
(feel). Not even the first F-16's had this.
a/c designed to be data-link flyable from the ground.
a/c designed with integrated navigation, weapons
release, automatic search and track radar, datalink
inputs, home-on-jamming, infrared detection, electronic
countermeasures and counter-countermeasures operating
through a DIGITAL brain.
high wing jet fighter that made the entire upper
surface a lifting body. The F-15, F-22, Su-27 etc.,
MiG-29, MiG 25 and others certainly used
sophisticated bleed-bypass system for both intake
AND engine/exhaust. Everybody uses that now.
by-pass engine design. (all current fighters have
combination of the last two points with an "ejector" nozzle
that used the bypass air to create thrust at the
exhaust nozzle while also improving intake flow.
The F-106 didn't even have a nozzle, just a pipe.
of Titanium for significant portions of the aircraft
structure and engine.
of composites (not the first, but they made thoughtful
use of them and were researching and engineering
of a drooped leading edge and aerodynamic "twist" on
of engines at the rear to allow both a lighter structure
and significant payload at the centre of gravity.
Everybody copied that.
of a LONG internal weapons bay to allow carriage
of specialized, long-range standoff and cruise missiles.
(not copied yet really)
of ground-mapping radar and the radar altimeter plus
flight control system to allow a seriousstrike/reconnaissance
role. The first to propose an aircraft be equally
adept at those roles while being THE air-superiority
fighter at the same time. (Few have even tried to
copy that, although the F-15E is an interesting exception.)
missile armed a/c to have a combat weight thrust
to weight ratio approaching 1 to 1. Few have been
able to copy that.
flying 4,000 psi hydraulic system to allow lighter
and smaller components.
oxygen-injection re-light system.
engine to have only two main bearing assemblies on
a two-shaft design.
to use a variable stator on a two-shaft engine.
use of a trans-sonic first compressor stage on a
26) First "hot-streak" type
of afterburner ignition.
engine to use only 10 compressor sections in a two-shaft
design. (The competition was using 17!!)
Courtesy of Randall Whitcomb, "Avro
Aircraft and Coldwar Aviation."
© RL Whitcomb 2006
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ADA-Arrow Milestones-AVRO CF-105 ARROW