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Avro Newsletter:Roll Out of the Avro Arrow

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Here are the four men who co-ordinated the efforts of all phases of Engineering which went into creating the Arrow. From left: R. N. Lindley, Chief Engineer; J. C. Floyd, Vice-President Engineering; Guest Hake, Arrow Project Designer; and Jim Chamberlin, Chief of Technical Design.
was received in October of that year. NAE found the C104/2 design had many desirable features but considered the proposed aircraft too heavy. It recommended that further studies be made on this configuration. In addition, changes were made at this time to the RCAF requirements for the all-weather fighter concept. These primarily called for an increase in the aircraft's operational altitude.

"Go-Ahead" . . .
The C104 proposal was, as a result, redesigned, and the new configuration was established as the C105. To meet the aerodynamic requirements the new proposal maintained the delta planform and was twin-engined, but its weight was reduced while the overall size was kept as small as possible. Avro submitted the C105 proposal to the RCAF in June 1953.
     In less than one month the "Go-Ahead" was received from the government authorizing a design study of the C105 to meet the RCAF requirements.
     First step in the design study was to adapt the new concept to Rolls Royce RB106 engines which were then in an advanced stage of development. From that point things progressed rapidly and the first tests of the wind tunnel development program were run in September 1953, only two months after the "gun was fired".
     To date, Arrow wind tunnel models have been tested from low speed to twice the speed of sound. Facilities used included

NAE (Ottawa) for low and high speed testing, Cornell Aeronautical Laboratories (Buffalo) for transonic tests, NACA (Langley Field, Virginia) for supersonic tests, and NACA Lewis Laboratory (Cleveland) for air intake tests. Seventeen models, ranging from 1/80th to 1/6th scale were used at one or the other of these facilities, to obtain necessary structural and aerodynamic data.
     Wind tunnel limitations caused Avro engineers to explore further techniques for obtaining important aerodynamic data. These consisted mainly of a lengthy program of firing large scale free-flight models, with rocket-propelled boosters to supersonic speeds to simulating flight of the full scale aircraft at altitude. The models were instrumented to measure performance and stability and to transmit the information back to a ground station.

Aerodynamics Tests
    
Eleven free-flight models were fired between December, 1954 and January, 1957-nine at the CARDE range at Point Petre, Ontario, and two at the NACA range in Virginia. All rocket launchings and booster separations were successful and the firing program was completed satisfactorily. In nearly every test, complete performance records were obtained.
     During 1954, when preliminary design was completed, the RCAF adopted the CF-105 designation for the aircraft. Initial proposals, design studies and tests which led to establishing the basic configuration of the CF-105, resulted mainly

Integral fuel tanks are a feature of the Arrow. Extensive checking of the entire fuel system is continually going on in this specially-built test facility. Prevention of leakage is imperative.

AVRO NEWS 3

Structure of a free-flight model is tested at key points, with strain gauges to measure deflection. When ready for flight, models were heavily instrumented to transmit data to engineers.
Mock-up of the cockpit was mounted on a truck at actual height and taxiing attitude of the Arrow in order to check pilot visibility under actual daylight and night operating conditions.
from the efforts of the Preliminary Design Office, under the direction of Jim Chamberlin, who is now Chief of Technical Design.

Powerplant Changes
    
Later in 1954, powerplant problems arose which required major changes in the proposed program. The Rolls Royce RB 106 engines which were incorporated in the design, would not be available in time for the CF-105, and were replaced by two Curtiss-Wright J67 engines. Then, in early 1955, the U.S. Air Force disclosed that the J67 also would be too late to meet the Avro schedule. At this point, the program now in effect was laid on-the installation of Pratt & Whitney J75s as an interim measure, and Orenda PS13s (Iroquois) when they become available. Although the Iroquois development was well advanced, and its specifications more than met Avro's requirements, the combination of an untried engine and an untried airframe was considered not practical on an aircraft development flight test program.
     A great deal of theoretical work on the application of the "Area Rule" was carried out on the CF-105 project. This is essentially a method of refining the fuselage shape to give the so-called "Coke-Bottle" effect for the purpose of reducing supersonic drag of the aircraft.
     Both the RAF and USAF were kept constantly informed of the progress of the Canadian project, and contributed significant encouragement by their concurrence in the soundness of the concept.
     From the time the basic configuration was established, to the end of 1956, up to 460 engineers, technicians and drafts men worked on the design and development of the CF-105 structure and systems. Under the general direction and guidance of Bob Lindley, Chief Engineer, and the co-ordinating efforts of Guest Hake, Project Designer, a multitude of problems in each of the various

fields of engineering were resolved.
     An engineering mock-up of the complete aircraft was built to provide a three dimensional check on installation clearances and general accessibility. Construction was mainly of wood with some metal formers. At first, a rough mock-up of the J67 was installed to check clearances around the engines. However, the later decision to install J75s required numerous changes to the engine bay structure. RCAF evaluation of the mock-up took place in February last year, and included assessment of a metal mock-up of the armament pack under consideration at that time.

Pilot Visibility
    
To demonstrate pilot visibility while taxiing and cockpit lighting techniques, a special mock-up of the front cockpit was mounted on a truck to simulate the actual height and attitude of the cockpit during ground manoeuvering. This mock-up was later modified to include the radar nose and the trials were repeated.
     Early in 1956 work got under way to change the engine bay section of the mock-up to accommodate the Iroquois engine and to iron out primary installation problems. Associated ground handling equipment was also built at that time.
     Later in the year, conversion of the remainder of the engineering mock-up from CF-105 Mk 1 to CF-105 Mk 2 configuration began. Timing of the rebuild was based on the need to obtain RCAF evaluation results in time to incorporate any necessary changes in the Mk 2 engineering release. A number of
(Continued on Page 10, Col.1)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CONTENTS:
Page 1:
Cover Art Work.
Page 2:
Tribute, Proposal To Product, All-Weather Interceptor, Delta Planform.
Page 3:
Go-Ahead, Aerodynamics Tests, Powerplant Changes, Pilot Visibility.
Page 4:
Precision Keynotes All Arrow Tooling, Drawn Full Scale, Travelling Cutter
Page 5:
First Production Arrow Sets Low Manhour Record, From Paper to Hardware.
Page 6 and 7:
Centerfold Art Work.
Page 8:
Quality Control Gains New Inspection Skills, Interchangeability, Inspection Innovations, Pioneering.
Page 9:
Selling New Designs Requires Specialists, Need Test Pilots Aid At Early Design Stage, Set Out Details, Training Aids, Cockpit Layout.
Page 10:
Concept To Completion..., Computer Capacity, Ground Handling, Electronics, Production Prototype, Stress Analysis.....
Page 11:
Low Manhour Record, Sound Control, Outside Suppliers, Coast to Coast, Efficient Handling, New Methods, Bottlenecks, Impact, Quality Control......
Page 12:
Advertising, Tribute, DDP Helpful Partner, Subcontractors, Flight Test Program. Precision Keynotes, Selling New Design

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